Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is also known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes. It is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), which is the body’s main source of fuel. In type 2 diabetes, body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin ( a hormone that enables the movement of sugar into cells) — or even may not produce enough insulin to sustain a normal glucose level. Type 2 diabetes if left untreated can be life-threatening.
Type 2 diabetes is common in adults but can affect obese children and adolescents. Type 2 diabetes is not curable but by eating rationally, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight we can manage the disease. If blood sugar is not controlled by diet and exercises, one may require diabetes medications or insulin therapy
For most women, gestational diabetes doesn’t cause noticeable signs or symptoms
Majority of the patients do not report any symptoms and may progress directly to complications. Diabetes is therefore known as a silent killer. The following symptoms could be seen:
- Increased thirst and recurrent urination. Excess sugar building up in your bloodstream causes fluid to be pulled from the tissues. This may leave you thirsty. As a result, you may drink — and urinate — more than usual.
- Increased hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your cells, your muscles and organs become depleted of energy. This triggers intense hunger.
- Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, you may lose weight. Without the ability to metabolize glucose, the body uses alternative fuels stored in muscle and fat. Calories are lost as excess glucose is released in the urine.
- Fatigue. If your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become tired and irritable.
- Blurred vision. If your blood sugar is too high, fluid may be pulled from the lenses of your eyes. This may affect your ability to focus clearly.
- Slow-healing sores or frequent infections. Type 2 diabetes affects your ability to heal and resist infections.
- Areas of darkened skin. Some people with type 2 diabetes have patches of dark, velvety skin in the folds and creases of their bodies — usually in the armpits and neck. This condition, called acanthosis nigricans, this is a sign of insulin resistance.
Several oral medicines are now available to treat diabetes and these medications are chosen by the doctor keeping the characteristics of the individual patient and the nature of his/her medical problems.
Diabetes is a progressive disorder and the effect of these drugs generally wanes off after a few years and many type2 diabetics require insulin for maintaining good control of sugars
Additionally, the doctor might prescribe low-dose aspirin therapy as well as blood pressure and cholesterol-lowering medications to help prevent heart and blood vessel disease.
Some type 2 diabetics may need insulin therapy as well. Because normal digestion interferes with insulin taken by mouth, insulin must be injected. Insulin injections involve using a fine needle and syringe or an insulin pen injector — a device that looks like an ink pen, except the cartridge is filled with insulin.